Saturday, August 22, 2015

Is Mathematics Discovered or Invented?

Check out @TEDTalks's Tweet:

Tuesday, August 11, 2015

Comments on Sola Scriptura.

How Changing and Different Worldviews have Affected the Scriptures; Published, Studied, and Read, by Christians, Throughout Church History. -- John P. Coffman



I. Christ and Scripture
II. The Authors of the New Testament: The Apostles
   A. Illumined Apostles
   B. No works survive to the present
   C. Letters to an already established church
   D. Not a guidebook, a doctrinal system, nor an exhaustive dogmatic treatise
III. The Church before the “New Testament”
   A. The experience of Pentecost
   B. Jeremiah 31:33; II Corinthians 3:3; and Hebrews 10:16
   C. II John 12; III John 13-14a
   D. Their view on the books/letters that became the New Testament
IV. The Church that determined the canon and the heresies She fought
   A. Marcionism and Montanism
   B. Councils and Church Fathers
   C. The Orthodox culture in that time
V. Criteria for determining the canon
   A. Old Testament
   B. New Testament
VI. The drastic change that occurred at the Reformation
   A. Rejecting Tradition
   B. Rejecting Scripture
   C. Accepting Islamic philosophy
VII. The abominable effect of higher criticism on modern Bibles
   A. Old Testament
   B. New Testament
   C. Continuing the errors of the Reformers



This paper began as a variety of personal notes on the topic of Sola Scriptura. It is written, clearly, from my Orthodox Christian perspective. As the number of my notes began to grow, it prompted me to organize them, and thus an outline was born. By this point, I found there was some other parts on this topic I should research in order to fill in any gaps in my knowledge. By that point, it did not take long for a whole piece of work, in itself, to emerge. 

Christians love their Bibles. However, it seems there is an incredible lack of knowledge about its formation and history. The question, “where did the Bible really come from?” is one that should interest every Christian. It interested me; and I knew the Orthodox Church has much to say on this. As conversations brought these points to light, some requested to read my notes. This final work is those notes in a presentable format…
   “For we have not followed cunningly devised fables, when we made known unto you the power and coming of our Lord Jesus Christ, but were eyewitnesses of his majesty. For he received from God the Father honour and glory, when there came such a voice to him from the excellent glory, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased. And this voice which came from heaven we heard, when we were with him in the holy mount. We have also a more sure word of prophecy; whereunto ye do well that ye take heed, as unto a light that shineth in a dark place, until the day dawn, and the day star arise in your hearts: Knowing this first, that no prophecy of the scripture is of any private interpretation. For the prophecy came not in old time by the will of man: but holy men of God spake moved by the Holy Ghost.” -- St. Peter the Apostle

Read more in a formatted and downloadable text (with footnotes and specific references) from the pdf by clicking here.

Barlaamism in Contemporary Theology: Re-post from John Sanidopoulos

Sunday, August 9, 2015

In What Sense is God the Judge of Men?: Re-post from John Sanidopoulos

Byzantine Empire - or Republic?: Re-post from The American Conservative

The Pride of Half-Educated People: Repost from Gornahoor

Concerning Parisian and Modernist Theology

Merits of re-segregating the sexes: Re-post from Fred on Everything

The Bride of Christ: Re-post from Eschatologia

Met. Ephrem on Orthodoxy: Re-post from Notes on Arab Orthodoxy

Three Stages in Spiritual Life: Re-post from Finding the Way to the Heart

Masculine Wisdom/Feminine Matter: the Drug-Fractured Psyche: Re-post from Jay's Analysis

The Secular Challenge: Re-post from Fr. Stephen Freeman

The Fragility of Logic: Re-post from Bloody shovel

Know Nothing: The true history of atheism.- Re-post from Slate

The Republicans have no roots in traditional American philosophy.

Moralistic Therapeutic Deism - An infographic

Theory & Tradition: Re-post from Pemptousia

Salvation as Theosis in John 1: Re-post from On Behalf of All

A quote from Elder Sophrony

A quote from Fr. Josiah

A quote from Met. Hierotheos

Monday, March 9, 2015

Christ's Body, the Church, as the New Israel

“Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.” (Gal 3:16)

The gross heresy of Judaizing rears its head again in contemporary “Christianity,” especially in America. You cannot say the ethnic, cultural, and religious Jews and the Christians are both the people of God. It denies the reality of the Church.

I hear this impious language around me every so often. The interesting part of this false belief is the extent one will often take to avoid any talk of the Church, sometimes trying to avoid even mentioning the word. The modern “Christianity” is plagued by the modern heresy of ecumenism. Those who participate in this heresy intentionally or ignorantly deny the Christ-centered teaching of His Body, the Church. The reality of the Church in the Christian life is an understanding that anyone with an ounce of knowledge of historic Christianity and the Scriptures can begin to understand. Those who lack this knowledge easily fall prey to this modern form of Judaizing.

However, one teaching of the Church should be mentioned since it is a key to understanding why this widespread belief is false. The Church is eternal. It was not born on Pentecost; it existed, with God, before the creation of time. The love and communion between the Persons of the Trinity is the Church and, with Creation, it extends into created reality with man’s communion with God. It extends into all creation with every part of the created world supposed to be in communion with God, via the priestly function of man. I could list many sources that mention the truth of this from the history of the Church and from the Scriptures, but this teaching is easy to find for those who know our Scriptures and read the Fathers.

Now there was indeed a hugely significant change at Pentecost. There is no doubt of this. Fr. John Romanides puts it best. “Pentecost is the event by which the Old and New Testament Church became the Body of Christ which now includes also all the forefathers who had been illumined and glorified before Yahweh's incarnation.” Ethnic Israel, who did not believe, withered up and became fallen limbs from the Tree of God’s eternal Church. All while, the believing Jews, and now the Gentiles, became “grafted” into the Church called Israel, now being the resurrected Body of Christ. At Pentecost, the Church’s existence took on a new reality. It became the instrument for the hope of the Prophets and the vehicle for our immortality.

You see? There is a way that our immortality and salvation works. It is not an edict of God dictated to us. It is neither by His will alone. We are becoming saved and become immortal because we are organically connected to something that is life-giving and master of death. This is our connection to the Body of Christ, which is now resurrected, and bestows life on us. Now tell me, how is it possible that Jews are part of this reality?

The Israel that rejects the incarnate I AM cannot belong to the Israel of God that accepts the pre-incarnate Christ. The Jews rejected their identity as the people of God when they said they “have no king but Caesar.” The Israel of God glories in the Cross of Christ. (see Gal. 6:16). Fr. Josiah put it well when he said: “You cannot be a child of Abraham and deny the faith of Abraham” The Forerunner said God could turn stones into children of Abraham. Further, he says, “You cannot deny the seed of Abraham and claim to be Abraham's child.” When the Jewish leaders egotistically claimed to be children of Abraham, “Christ called the Jewish leaders, children of Satan.”

The key point I wish to make is this teaching, this belief is wrong and impious. Learn the teaching the Apostles and the Apostolic Fathers gave about Christ’s Body, that “pillar and foundation of the truth” (I Tim. 3:15). Many who profess the name Christian vehemently argue for the existence of objective morality but are comfortable with relative theological teachings. This goes against Christ promise that the Holy Spirit would lead Christians “into all truth.” You, who love Truth, understand… The Orthodox Church prays for the union and salvation of all men. What a cruel and hateful act to tell the Jews that they have no need to repent, because they still figure in God’s plan for mankind, somehow. Stop the nonsense that prevents the salvation of others.

Saturday, February 28, 2015

"Fundamentalism": Black & White or Life-Giving & Life-Rejecting Positions

Fundamentalism started as a Protestant designation for the fanatical Sola-Scriptura crowd (which does vary in itself). In Orthodoxy, I see it only as a term to diminish any credibility with those who opposed modernist tendencies. I notice this about the modernists who use this label; they are extremely vague and avoid specifics. I have not seen a modernist accuse a particular person as a fundamentalist. Rather, those who hold a certain position are fundamentalists. This is an attempt to dismiss a fundamentalist as one with cloudy thinking, uncontrolled emotions, and not level-headed enough to be taken seriously.

One could say the pan-heresy of today, ecumenism, is a coin with two sides to it. On one side, there is disregard for what the Tradition of the Church and ignorance of that life replaced with an academic attitude and spirit that those with this attitude know better than everyone else. The Orthodox oppose fruitless endeavors in the Church, or the overstretching the oikonomia to the detriment of spiritual growth which shows caution and/or discernment on their part. The modernist/tribal/ecumenical person disagrees with these positions. On the other side of the coin, sometimes, are the zealots. They think the faithful Orthodox are part of the problem in that they do not resist enough. The zealots are self-righteously resisting. The "Genuine Orthodox Church" are part of this group. They are schismatics, both have attachments to Freemasonry and are infected with a Gnostic spirit.

Those who simply want to have a Christian life participating in the fullness of the Church as much as possible are not fundamentalists. Those who follow the saints and imitate the monastics as much as they can, and who deeply value their guidance and words are not fundamentalists. Those who recognize the Fathers, love them, and try to live the life, in which the Fathers guide the Christian, are not fundamentalists. If someone knows theoretically and practically the history and application of the canons, and the difference between akriveia and oikonomia, they are not a fundamentalist. Someone who understands traditional ecclesiology, and by extension the sacraments, who does not fall prey to the relativism that defines this "modern Church", and understands it to be a heresy, is not a fundamentalist. These Orthodox Christians are Orthodox. The Orthodox, if he believes a wrong has occurred, will still work his hardest to correct it, encourage others to see the truth, but respect the freedom of others and preserve the harmony of the Church.

“Modernists” describe “fundamentalists” as those who reduce the Faith to simple and minimal theological axioms, which against everything is measure. However, the very name of Church “Father” means they lead and instruct us as their “children”. So measuring things against the Fathers is the natural order of the Church. It is death to be an egotist who think he can categorize, compartmentalize, or knit-pick their life giving words (even if he does so with esteemed quotations from esteemed philosophers or "theologians"). The Orthodox humbly tries to follow the Fathers, Saints, and monastics toward Paradise from their light-giving direction.

It is not fundamentalism to receive converts by Orthodox baptism. Many have spoken and written on why this has always been the practice of the Church. It has been the message when looking at the totality of canon law (see here). It is consistent with the theology of the Church's Tradition.

The Body of Christ has boundaries, just like the Nation of Israel, just like any body. How can the grace of our Sacraments exist outside the Church? They cannot! Those who disagree must not grasp the variety in the energies of God which the Fathers point out. They do not recognize that the deifying energies of the sacraments only occur inside the Church. There are clear and solid indications whether groups and persons are inside this Body or whether they are outside it. The Church has boundaries; its deifying grace is inside those boundaries. There are saints who can truly see where this grace is and where it is not. This grace is in the Orthodox Mystery of Baptism and this grace is inside the Orthodox Church.

This is largely in response to George E. Demacopoulos here:

Fr. John Whiteford writes an excellent piece for more information:

I have those dear to me who were received into the Orthodox Church by chrismation alone. They were received in this manner out of obedience to those who led them into the Church. This obedience keeps harmony in the Church.

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Christ in the Old Testament

                   I.   Adam
1. Adam is the father of the first humanity. Christ is the father of the new humanity.
2. The fruit of the tree of life prefigured Christ (The tree, His Mother).
3. Christ prophesies of Himself when He expels Adam and Eve from the Garden of Eden (Gen. 3:15).
                II.   Abel – was murdered by Cain, foreshadows the righteous Christ’s murder by unrighteous men.
             III.   Seth
1. Seth is interpreted to mean appointed or resurrection, both foreshadowing Christ. Seth was appointed or raised up to replace the murdered Abel.
2. Adam, Seth, and Eve are a shadow of the Holy Trinity: Adam unbegotten, Seth begotten, Eve proceeded from Adam.
             IV.   Enos received his hope and calling upon it, he was called after it.
               V.   Enoch
1. He prefigures the Ascension and that the world is not worthy to those well-pleasing to God.
2. He is the first one (after Christ, Himself) to prophesy the coming of the Lord.
             VI.   Lamech saw Christ in Noah and gave this name to his son, Noah.

Descendents of Adam
          VII.   Noah
1. Noah did not save mankind in general, but his household. Christ, is the Savior of the race of man, not generally, but those of His household (though all men can participate in His redemption).
2. Noah’s name is prophetic since it means “rest”.
3. Through wood, both Noah and Christ saved the human race.
4. The flood prefigures the baptism of purification.
       VIII.    The hidden prophecy in the name-meanings from Adam to Noah: "Man [is] appointed [to] mortal sorrow; [but] the blessed God shall come down, teaching; [and] His death shall bring [the] despairing, rest."
             IX.   Shem – Noah's blessing to Shem prophesies that his progeny was to be divine.

               X.   Melchizedek
1. Melchizedek was king and priest, while Christ is King of Kings and our High Priest.
2. Melchizedek offered Abraham bread and wine, while Christ offers us bread and wine as His Body and Blood.
3. Abraham bowed to Melchizedek and gave him tribute as we bow to him and offer him our sacrifices.

Patriarchs (their descendants are more numerous than the sands of the earth or stars in the sky, prophesies the Church.)
             XI.   Abraham (In Abraham, every aspect of the final covenant, in Christ, was foreshadowed and foretold.)
1. Name means “father of a multitude” therefore he prefigures Christ who also is the new father of the continuing, yet restored, multitude.
2. “Now to Abraham and his seed were the promises made. He saith not, And to seeds, as of many; but as of one, And to thy seed, which is Christ.” (Gal. 3:16).
3. “Now the Lord said to Abram, “Go from your country and kindred and your father’s house to the land that I will show you. And I will make you a great nation, and make your name great, so that you will be a blessing ... and in you all families of the earth shall be blessed” (Gen 12:1-3, 17:1-8, 22:1-18). This promise to Abraham was fulfilled in Christ.
4. The visit of the Angels prefigures the whole revelation of the Trinity in Christian times.
5. The faith and works of Abraham is worthy of emulation, by the Christian, according to the Apostles.
6. Abraham’s episode with Melchizedek prefigures the priesthood of Christ (see above).
7. Abraham’s episode in sacrificing Isaac prefigures the sacrifice of Christ (see below).
– The pre-incarnate Christ comforts Hagar in the desert.
          XII.   Isaac
1. The birth of Christ and Isaac, as sons of promise, was supernatural.
2. Both were called "the only begotten son."
3. Jesus and Isaac were both dead three days, though Isaac only figuratively.
4. Both carried the wood of their own demise up the same mountain (Moriah), consented to endure death, were bound, offered by their fathers, laid on the wood, while in the vigor of life, and both lived again after the offering.
5. Isaac also prefigures Christ in the unique relationship each had with his bride — Isaac with Rebekah and Jesus with the Church.
       XIII.   Jacob
1. Vision of the Ladder prefigures the Theotokos who was the instrument to connect heaven with earth; the Lord leaned on this latter and dwelt in the Theotokos.
2. Jacob is meek and his meekness prefigures Christ. Jacob, in his meekness inherited the land of his fathers and is therefore a testimony to the truth of the relevant beatitude spoken by Christ.
3. Jacob, when wrestling with God, saw the pre-incarnated God and this episode prefigures the Lord’s Incarnation.
4. Jacob prophesied Christ through the lineage of Judah.
       XIV.   Joseph
1. Joseph and Christ were both betrayed and sold for money; then both Joseph and Christ were falsely accused and sentenced; then both suffered patiently; Joseph was cast into a dark prison and forgotten, while Christ was cast into a tomb while the Apostles forgot his prophesy to rise again; after this, both were led into great glory and given all authority. All this shows Joseph foreshadowing the Betrayal, Passion, Death, and Glorification of the Lord.
2. Both had temptation thrust on them but did not sin.
3. Both were envied and plotted against.
4. Joseph, in humility, descended into Egypt and within the marriage chamber of the Egyptian women conquered sin; Christ, in humility, descended to earth and then entered hell defeating sin and death.
5. Both forgave those who wronged them.
6. Both saved their people.
7. Both admonished sinners to bring them to repentance and conversion after examining their consciences.

          XV.   Job
1. Job’s innocent sufferings and patience foreshadows Christ.
2. Job was called a righteous man by God; and God is righteousness itself.
3. Job was called truthful; and the Lord is the Truth itself.
4. Job was rich; and who could be richer than the Lord?
5. The devil tempted Job three times; and three times, according to the Gospel, he tried to tempt the Lord.
6. Everything that Job had, he lost; and for love of us the Lord forgot all his heavenly blessings and made himself poor, that we might be rich.
7. The devil, raging, destroyed Job’s sons; and the Lord’s sons, the prophets, were killed by the unfaithful Israelites, in their madness.
8. Job was disfigured with boils; and the Lord, while hanging on the Cross, was bore the sins of all mankind.
9. Job’s own wife urged him to sin; and the synagogue, the bride of God, tried to compel the Lord to follow the corrupt behavior of the elders.
10. Job’s friends, it is said, insulted him; and the Lord was insulted by his own priests, his own worshippers.
11. Job sits on a dunghill full of worms; and the Lord lived in a real dunghill, that is, this world, surrounded by men seething with every vice and every crime: true worms.
12. Job received back his health and his riches; and the Lord, rising, did not only regain health but granted immortality to those who believed in him and took back dominion over the whole of nature.
13. Job begot new sons to replace the ones who had died; the Lord, to replace the prophets, begot his holy sons, the Apostles.
14. Job went to his rest in blessedness and peace; but the Lord remains blessed in all eternity: before time, and from the beginning of time, and to the end of all ages.
       XVI.   Moses (his entire life foreshadows Christ)
1. The slaughtering of innocents occurred in conjunction with each of their births and both were protected.
2. Both Moses and Christ were called out of Egypt.
3. The greatest revelation in the Old Testament was when the pre-incarnate Christ gave His name as the I AM. The Burning Bush prefigures Christ dwelling in the Theotokos.
4. Moses led Old Israel, Jesus the Christ leads the New Israel.
5. Moses gave us his commandments, while Christ gave us His beatitudes.
6. Moses was the original lawgiver, given on stone; Christ is the new lawgiver, written on our hearts.
7. Hebrews 3:2-3 tells us Moses was the most faithful in God’s earthly house: Old Israel Church, Christ was faithful to the One who appointed Him as God over His spiritual house: the Church, that is, His Body.
8. When Moses struck a rock with his rod, it prefigured Christ, the thirsty Israelites drank from it. Christ is the source of our living water.
9. Deuteronomy 18:17-19 is Christ prophesying His own coming to Moses.
10. The Passover Lamb is a very significant prefiguration and preparation for Christ’s sacrifice.
11. The entire tabernacle structure foreshadows Christian realities.
A.The ark foreshadows the Theotokos, inside the ark were the 10 commandments, the staff the budded showing Aaron as the true High Priest, and the manna that fed the wandering Israelites. Inside the womb of the Theotokos was the Lawgiver, the true High Priest that resulted in the salvific work of the Cross, and the Bread of Life.
B. The glory of God dwelt in the tabernacle, in Old Israel; while in New Israel, God dwelt in the Theotokos and now in His Church.
C. Loaves were set on a table; the Bread of life was rested in the Theotokos.
D. Candles rested on a lampstand, while our Light, that is Christ, rested in the Theotokos.
12. With Moses, there are many foreshadows of the Cross.
A. The striking of the Red Sea (also foreshadowing baptism).
B. The lifting of his arms during battle with the Amalekites.
C. The Bronze Serpent.
D. The encampment of Israel formed a cross.
    XVII.   Aaron
1. As High priest he prefigures Christ.
2. His rod prefigures the Cross. It is a dry and sterile staff which produced leaves and nuts. The tree of the Cross produced the fruit of life.
3. His robe prefigures the Church by the work of the high priest rings the bells which the people are to attend, so Christ our High Priest, uses the Prophets, Fathers, and Saints to speak out and we must listen.
 XVIII.   Joshua
1. Christ was given the name Jesus which is the same name as Joshua since both are the Savior and Deliverer of their people. Therefore, Joshua’s life also prefigures Jesus.
2. Moses (representing the Law) did not enter the Promised Land, Joshua (who came after Moses) was the one who entered. In the same way, Christ brings those into Paradise after the Law has done its work.
3. When Joshua began to rule, he did so at the Jordan. After Christ was baptized he began his ministry at the Jordan.
4. Joshua appoints the twelve to divide the inheritance. Jesus sends out the twelve into the whole world.
5. By setting up twelve stones in the Jordan, he foresaw the twelve disciples coming as ministers of baptism.
6. With a shout, the walls of Jericho fell, while with the words of Christ, no temple stone was left on top of another.
7. Joshua and Rahab foreshadow the forgiveness of Christ and his work to call not the righteous but the sinners to repentance.
8. Rahab’s house becomes a foreshadowing of the Church, because all in her house were saved and entered a new life, in Israel.
9. Joshua was appointed as Moses’ successor in the New Testament style of laying on of hands.
10. Joshua is a warrior and conqueror with carnal weapons. Christ is a greater warrior and conqueror, because He does not use carnal weapons.
11. Joshua descended upon the Canaanite heathens and vanquished them just as Christ descended into Hades and vanquished Death and his minions.
12. The pre-incarnate Christ appears to Joshua as the Captain of the hosts of the Lord.
       XIX.   Balaam
1. Spoke often with the “Angel” of God. This is the pre-incarnate Christ.
2. He had a specific prophecy of Christ saying that out of the Hebrews shall come a ruler of many nations.
3. The prophecies the Magi knew were spoken by Balaam.

Judges (“savior” is a synonym for judge; the judges prefigure Christ because they save their people from foreign enemies and internal unrest)
          XX.   Othniel – Othniel of Judah conquered Cushan-Rishathaim and saved Israel. Othniel conquered a city to gain his wife; Christ conquered Hades to win His Bride, the Church.
       XXI.   Deborah – Deborah defeated Jabin of Hazor and secured Israel. Deborah’s name means “bee.” In this way, she prefigures the Theotokos who was meticulously cared for in the Holy of Holies by the heavenly hosts, just as a queen bee undergoes careful preparation by her hive before she becomes queen. The Theotokos is also prefigured by Deborah since they were both unconquerable and wrote a song of God’s great mercy.
    XXII.   Gideon – Gideon of Manasseh delivered Israel from the Midianites. Gideon’s fleece prophesies the Incarnation; Mary being the fleece and Christ being the dew. After the episode of the dewy fleece, an army was raised and rescued Israel. After the Incarnation, apostles were raised and delivered mankind.
 XXIII.   Samson
1. Samson delivered Israel from the Philistines.
2. The death of Samson is a powerful foreshadowing of the descent into Hades (The Philistines are the demons, the pagan temple is Hades; Samson is brought into the temple and asks to be brought in between two pillars. Samson destroys his enemies by this request; Samson made the sign of the cross and pulls the two pillars down, thus collapsing the temple).
 XXIV.   Samuel
1. Samuel was born to a woman who otherwise would not have children—Hannah was infertile. (Christ was born to a woman who otherwise would not have had children—Mary was a virgin).
2. Samuel was the firstborn son of his mother (Christ was the firstborn of His Mother).
3. Samuel was given to the Lord all the days of his life. (Christ was given to the Lord all His life).
4. Samuel grew up serving amidst wicked priests. (Christ grew up among hypocritical scribes, Pharisees and the corrupt Sanhedrin).
5. Samuel hid none of the things from Eli the priest that God had said against Eli. (Jesus hid none of the things from the chief priests that God had said against them).
6. Samuel prayed for all Israel (1 Sam. 7:5) (Jesus interceded for all the covenants of Israel).
7. Samuel traveled around Israel to judge them. (1 Sam. 7:16) (Jesus traveled around Israel to teach the people).
8. Samuel witnessed how Israel rejected the Lord as their true king and wanted a man instead. (1 Sam. 10:19) (Jesus was rejected as “king of the Jews” when the Jews cried “we have no king but Caesar!”).
9. Samuel was cleared of any guilt or injustice. (1 Sam. 12:3-5) (Jesus was innocent of any wrong-doing).
10. 1 Sam. 9:20 and 1 Sam. 10:24 are true of Saul but also true of Christ.
11. 1 Samuel 15:27-29 can be seen as a prophecy of Christ.
12. The man of God who reproached Eli prophesied Christ in 1 Sam. 2:35
Hannah (Samuel’s mother) spoke of the resurrection here: 1 Sam. 2:6. 13.

    XXV.   David (his entire life foreshadows Christ)
1. David a shepherd in occupation. Christ the Good Shepherd.
2. David was God’s anointed one, this foreshadows Christ’s anointing of divinity.
3. David, persecuted by Saul, foreshadows Christ as the suffering servant; but later a victorious King.
4. David had humble origins just as Christ’s birth shows the great humility of God.
5. Covenant with David that the Messiah would come through him. (2 Sam 7:12-16).
6. Both are from Bethlehem.
7. David and Jesus’ betrayals are similar.
8. Nathan (contemporary of King David) prophesied his eternal reign (2 Samuel 7:13).
9. David saw Christ and wrote of Him in numerous Psalms…
– Only some examples are:
1. God's Son will rule the nations (2:7-8).
2. King, Priest, and Judge (Psalm 110).
3. He speaks in parables (Psalm 78:2-4).
4. Rejection by Jews (Psalm 118:22-23).
5. The Lord’s Day of Resurrection (Psalm 117:24).
6. Christ’s crucifixion (Psalm 22:1-21).
7. Salvation of our souls and bodies, living the resurrection (Psalm 15:9-11).
8. The power of Christ (Psalm 8).
 XXVI.   Solomon
1. Solomon built the Temple, Christ built his Church and makes us temples of the Holy Spirit. While this temple holds the glory of God, it prefigures the Theotokos who had the glory of God dwelling in Herself.
2. Solomon means “bringer of peace” and true bringer of peace is Jesus Christ.
3. Solomon had the Wisdom of God; Christ is that Wisdom of God.
4. Solomon had the kingdoms of the earth coming to visit and admire his wisdom. Now Gentiles have come to Christ to possess him as Holy Wisdom. More specifically, the gifts the Queen of Sheba brought prefigure the gifts of the Magi.
5. Solomon saw Christ and wrote of Him in his Wisdom books.
 XXVII.   Josiah – As a righteous king, he prefigures Christ.
XXVIII.   Hezekiah – As a righteous king, he prefigures Christ.

    XXIX.   Zerubbabel
1. He prefigures Christ since he was greatly honored.
2. He taught Hebrews and foreigners the power of the truth, set his race free from servitude, and restored God's temple; just as Christ brings us to the truth, set us free from the bondage of death and Satan, and makes us temples of the Holy Spirit.
3. He along with Joshua led his people back to the Promised Land; Christ, then, has His leading us back to Paradise prefigured uniquely in two prefigurations of Himself.
      XXX.   Elijah
1. Elijah prefigures John the Forerunner best.
2. Elijah, John, and Christ’s preaching focused on repentance.
3. Elijah was rejected and Christ was rejected.
4. The work of all three led their respective kings to despise them.
5. Elijah's ascent foreshadows Christ's Ascension.
 XXXI.   Elisha
1. Since Elijah is considered a prefiguration of the Forerunner, Elisha did greater things than his predecessor and, in this sense, is considered a prefiguration of Christ.
2. Elijah’s dead body raised a man from the dead. Christ’s death leads us all to the resurrection.
3. Elisha came from the Jordan; while Christ was baptized in the Jordan then started his ministry.
4. Elijah and John the Baptist saw little of the other-world. Elisha saw the fiery chariots of the angelic hosts filling the mountain; Christ, as God, dwells in the heavens.
5. Many similar miracles are performed by both Christ and Elisha. They are both great miracle-workers.
XXXII.   Esdras
1. As an anointed priest, he prefigures Christ.
2. Just as he leads his people home and is a teacher of the commandments, Christ leads and teaches us to our ultimate purpose by His commandments.
3. Esdras leads his people away from captivity, as Christ leads us away from the greater captivity of sin and death.
4. Esdras’ leadership in the reconstructed temple prefigures Christ’s role in the establishment of his Church and leadership in becoming temples of the Holy Spirit.
XXXIII.   Nehemiah
1. Nehemiah rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem. Christ rebuilt Israel into His Body; and like walls, Christ protects His people.
2. The enemies of Nehemiah told him to come down from his godly work. The same was told to Christ when on the cross.
3. Nehemiah intercedes for the people. Christ is mediator for us to the Father.
XXXIV.   Tobit
1. Tobit sent his son Tobias into the world to retrieve an inheritance, The Father sent Son to claim creation as His inheritance.
2. The son redeems a bride enslaved to the powers of darkness and death. Christ redeems His Church from the same.
3. A great wedding feast is prepared and a tomb prepared, but the tomb is empty. Likewise, Christ had his mystical supper, and empties His tomb.
4. The use of the fish is a foreshadowing of Christ…
A. They ate it for nourishment, while eating of Christ’s flesh is “truly nourishment.”
B. The heart and liver (which are the organs dealing with blood) delivered Sarra from the demon and its captivity.
C. The heart and blood were used during a censing, just as we receive the Eucharist during the Liturgy which is full of censing.
D. The use of bile on Tobit was a sweet cure but it had a bitter taste; the life of Christ is bitter martyrdom but sweet healing.
5. The passage of Raphael encouraging returning to the father, with the wife following, and Tobias also taking the gall of fish, meanwhile the dog follows behind is an overall picture: This is Christ returning to the Father through his resurrection (through crucifixion where he was fortified by a ministering angel) with the Church following behind and Creation coming along.
  XXXV.   Judith (prefigures the Theotokos)
1. Judith’s fame-causing action was decapitating Holofernes. The fame-causing action of Mary resulted in Christ who fulfilled Gen. 3:15.
2. Both are exceedingly beautiful and devout.
3. The old covenant Jews sing praises of this salvific action of Judith. Today’s Christians sing praises to Mary the Theotokos for her salvific actions.
XXXVI.   Esther (prefigures the Theotokos)
1. Both are beautiful and devout.
2. Esther intercedes with the king to save her people. The Theotokos intercedes to save us.
3. Both are queens.
4. Esther means “star”. Traditionally, the Theotokos’ robe is depicted with three stars symbolizing virginity.
XXXVII.   Sirach
1. Sirach describes those who hear Christ (39:1-11).
2. Christ rescues those in Hades (51:3-12).
3. Chapter 47 mentions prophecies through David and Solomon.

Major Prophets
XXXVIII.   Isaiah
1. The vision of God in Isaiah 6:3 with the angels proclaiming “Holy, Holy, Holy…” is a revelation that God is Triune.
2. Isaiah is famous for prophesying the virgin birth (Isaiah 7:14).
3. He lists characteristics of Christ (Isaiah 9:6).
4. He prophesies John the Forerunner (Isaiah 40:3).
5. Will have a Galilean ministry (Isaiah 9:1-2).
6. Will be an heir to the throne of David (Isaiah 9:7; 11:1, 10).
7. Will be spat on and struck (Isaiah 50:6).
8. Will be exalted (Isaiah 52:13).
9. Will be disfigured by suffering (Isaiah 52:14; 53:2).
10. Will make a blood atonement (Isaiah 53:5).
11. Will be widely rejected (Isaiah 53:1-3).
12. Will bear our sins and sorrows (Isaiah 53:4, 5).
13. Will voluntarily accept our guilt and punishment for sin (Isaiah 53:7-8).
14. Gentiles will seek Him (Isaiah 11:10).
15. Will be silent before His accusers (Isaiah 53:7).
16. Will save us who believe in Him (Isaiah 53:12).
17. Will die with transgressors (Isaiah 53:12).
18. Will heal the brokenhearted (Isaiah 61:1-2).
19. Will be buried in a rich man's tomb (Isaiah 53:9).
20. God's Spirit will rest on Him (Isaiah 11:2).
21. He will judge the earth with righteousness (Isaiah 11:4-5).
22. Isaiah and Christ were both descended from King David.
23. He prophesies the resurrection (Isaiah 33:9-11).
24. After Isaiah's prophesy, Christ destroys the Assyrian army. (4 Kingdoms 19:35)
XXXIX.   Jeremiah
1. Both Jeremiah and Christ were called to deliver the judgment of God upon sinful man.
2. Both lived in a time of political upheaval and unrest for Judah.
3. In a sense, both were "prophets of doom" who became "enemies of the Jewish state."
4. Both condemned hypocrisy and foretold disaster unless the people turned away from sin and turned to God with all their hearts (Matt. 15:8; Jer. 7:9-15).
5. Both were "weeping prophets" who lamented over the City of Jerusalem (Jer. 9:1; Luke 19:41).
6. Both were misunderstood and persecuted by the people of their day.
7. Both prophets were plotted against by the citizens of their own hometowns (Jer. 11:21; Luke 4:28-30).
8. Both were rejected by the religious and political leaders of their day (Jer. 20:1-2; John 18:13, 24).
9. Both rejected the Temple worship as corrupt and beyond repair.
10. Both condemned the "religious" reinterpretation of the Torah (Jer. 8:8; Matt. 23:2-3;23; Mark 7:5).
11. Both were forcibly taken into Egypt because of political persecution (Matt. 2:13; Jer. 44).
12. Both were falsely accused, arrested, and unjustly beaten (Jer. 37:12-15; Matt. 26:61; 27:26).
13. Both were rejected by the secular Jewish king of the Jews (Jer. 32:2-4; Luke 23:8-11).
14. And yet both never abandoned the Jewish people and ultimately offered God's comfort and hope (Lam. 3:22-25, John 14:1,27).
15. Jeremiah and Christ both preached the New Covenant God that would transform a heart of stone into a heart of flesh (Jer. 31:31-34; Luke 22:20; Heb. 8:6-13; 9:15, etc.).
16. Both foresaw that the true Temple of God was made without hands, built from material of hearts of those who truly serve God in Spirit and in truth... The destruction of the First Temple was the central catastrophe of the older covenant, just as the destruction of the Second Temple was the Jewish central catastrophe during the New Covenant.
17. The Messiah would be a descendant of David (Jeremiah 23:5-6a).
18. The Messiah would be God (Jeremiah 23:5-6b).
19. The Messiah would be both God and Man (Jeremiah 23:5-6c).
20. The Messiah would be born of a virgin (Jeremiah 31:22).
21. The Messiah would be the new covenant (Jeremiah 31:31).
22. The Messiah would be a descendant of David (Jeremiah 33:14-15).
23. Slaughter of Holy Innocents (Jeremiah 31:15).
Baruch – 1. Praise of Wisdom (3:9 - 4:4)
           XL.   Ezekiel
1. The Valley of Dry Bones is a most excellent prototypical vision of the general resurrection.
2. The heavenly vision foretells the Incarnation and the Four Evangelist’s testimony of it.
3. The vision of the shut gate is a prophecy of the Virgin birth.
        XLI.   Daniel
1. It was Christ who appeared in the furnace with the Three Holy Youths. (Daniel 3:25)
2. The uncut mountain is a prefiguration of the Theotokos, this dream prophesies the incarnation of Christ and the establishment of the Church. (Daniel 2).
3. Christ is the Ancient of Days (Daniel 2).
4. Daniel 9:24-27 contains many prophesies of the work of Christ. He would come and deal with the problem of sin (9:24).
5. He would bring in everlasting righteousness (9:24).
6. He would seal up the vision (9:24).
7. He would anoint the Holy Place (9:24).
8. He will make a firm covenant with many (9:27).
9. He will bring OT sacrifices to an end (9:27).
10. Daniel gives a prophetic chronology. Daniel's prophecy itself indicates when it will be fulfilled. It tells us of the beginning point, the duration period, and the fulfilling event. The beginning point (9:25). The edict to rebuild Jerusalem is where we begin the 490 year count down to the Messiah. There were actually three such edicts issued, so we'll have to figure out which one. The duration period (9:24) is 70 weeks. Again, the term “week” means “unit of seven” and could refer to seven days, weeks, months or years. Since the looking back covered 490 years, then it is reasonable to do the same looking forward. The fulfilling event (9:26). This would be the ‘cutting off of the Messiah.’ This refers to His death. This will happen in the middle of the final “unit of seven” or 486 1/2 years in the future. In 457 B.C. Ezra led a group back to rebuild Jerusalem by the King's edict (Ezra 7:6,7; 9:9). To this beginning point, add the above 486 1/2 years and we come to 30 A.D. which is the date of the crucifixion! Following this, as punishment for putting the Messiah to death, Jerusalem would be destroyed. This, too, was accomplished by the Roman armies led by ''the prince who is to come” (this would be Titus who would take his father's place as emperor) exactly as Daniel had said (cf. Matthew 24:15; 34). After a siege, Jerusalem was burned and the sanctuary was completely destroyed. But Jesus had already ascended back to heaven to serve in the new sanctuary.

Minor Prophets
     XLII.   Hosea
1. “my son” will come “out of Egypt.” (Hosea 11:1).
2. Hosea speaks of the resurrection (Hosea 6:1-3).
3. Death will be conquered (13:14).
  XLIII.   Amos – The sun turns to darkness (Amos 5:18,20; 8:9)
  XLIV.   Micah – Chapters 4 and 5 concern Christ.
1. “But thou, Bethlehem Ephratah, though thou be little among the thousands of Judah, yet out of thee shall he come forth unto me that is to be ruler in Israel; whose goings forth have been from of old, from everlasting.” (5:2).
2. “And he shall stand and feed in the strength of the LORD, in the majesty of the name of the LORD his God; and they shall abide: for now shall he be great unto the ends of the earth.” (5:4).
3. The Spirit of the Lord is promised (Micah 3:8).
     XLV.   Joel – Joel is known as the Prophet of Pentecost.
1. Pentecost and the Church’s age: “And it shall come to pass afterward, that I will pour out my spirit upon all flesh; and your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, your old men shall dream dreams, your young men shall see visions: And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids in those days will I pour out my spirit.” (2:28-29).
2. He prophesied the Incarnation: “And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke” (2:30). The blood is the flesh of the Virgin, the fire is the fire of divinity (showing perfect man and perfect God), and the pillar of smoke is the Holy Spirit which was at work to bring about the Incarnation.
3. Salvation available for all mankind (2:32).
  XLVI.   Jonah – One of the most powerful foreshadowings of the Resurrection and Christ’s descent into Hades (which vomited him out).
XLVII.   Habakkuk
1. He prophesies the resurrection (2:4).
2. Gospel proclaimed to the world (2:14).
XLVIII.   Zephaniah – The following verse show a glimpse of the times of the Messiah: "Shout for joy, O daughter of Zion!...The king of Israel, the Lord, is in your midst; and you will fear disaster no more... At that time I will bring you in, even at that time when I gather you together..." (Zephaniah 3:14,15,20).
  XLIX.   Haggai
1. The Messiah would visit the second Temple (Haggai 2:6-9).
2. The Messiah would be a descendant of Zerubbabel (Haggai 2:23).
                 L.   Zachariah – Zachariah is a "most true God-proclaimer".
1. Details on His coming (6:12-13).
2. Last days of his earthly life and entry into Jerusalem (9:9).
3. Betrayal (11:4-13).
4. Piercing His side (12:10).
5. Apostle’s scattering (13:7).
6. Sun darkening (14:6-7).
7. His coming and building of His Church (2:10-13).
8. Zachariah shows a servant aspect and more work of the Messiah (3:8-10).
              LI.   Malachi
1. The Messiah and His messenger (3:1-3:6).
2. Sending of Elijah (3:23; 4:5-6).
3. The Messiah heals (3:20).
           LII.   Judas Maccabee
1. Judas’ cleansing of the temple and the palms for Hanukkah prefigure Christ’s entry and cleansing of the temple.
2. Elezar’s sacrifice prefigures Christ’s sacrifice.
3. Antiochus IV Epiphanes prefigures the Antichrist.
        The Wisdom of Solomon – This Wisdom is the Logos and Son of God, Jesus Christ. The whole book (even though it was written before the Incarnation) speaks clearly of Jesus. Chapter Two, Verses 12-20 are particularly evident that this book speaks of Christ.

·         St. Gregory Palamas
·         St. Nikolai Velimirovich

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